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情報倫理

Information Ethics, Ethics of Information Processing

池田光穂

情報倫理(information ethics)とは、情報の創造、組織、流通や配布・配信、利用などに関する一切の倫理規範(ethical standards)と道徳コード(moral codes )に関することがらのことである。

情報処理学会倫理綱領には、情報倫理を守るべき人として「社会 人、専門家、組織責任者」の3つのカテゴリーにわけて、それぞれ、4〜5項目の倫理要綱(コード)を掲載している。

つまり、社会人には「1.1 他者の生命、安全、財産を侵害しない。1.2 他者の人格とプライバシーを尊重する。1.3 他者の知的財産権と知的成果を尊重する。1.4 情報システムや通信ネットワークの運用規則を遵守する。1.5 社会における文化の多様性に配慮する。」の5項目。

専門家には、「2.1 たえず専門能力の向上に努め、業務においては最善を尽くす。2.2 事実やデータを尊重する。2.3 情報処理技術がもたらす社会やユーザへの影響とリスクについて配慮する。2.4  依頼者との契約や合意を尊重し、依頼者の秘匿情報を守る。」の4項 目。

そして、組織責任者には「3.1 情報システムの開発と運用によって影響を受けるすべての人々の要求に応じ、その尊厳を損なわな いように配慮する。3.2 情報システムの相互接続について、管理方 針の異なる情報システムの存在することを認め、その接続がいかなる人々の人格をも侵害しないように配慮する。3.3 情報システムの開発と運用について、資源の正当かつ適切な利用のための規則を作成し、その実施 に責任を持つ。3.4 情報処理技術の原則、制約、リスクについて、 自己が属する組織の構成員が学ぶ機会を設ける。」の4項目である。

さらに、法令や他の社会的規範(たとえば「研究規 範」)などとの矛盾や齟齬をおこすことがらには「会員個人の判断」という、自己管理と自己責任もあることを謳っている。

つまり「本綱領は必ずしも会員個人が直面するすべて の場面に適用できるとは限らず、研究領域における他の倫理規範との矛盾が生じることや、個々の場面においてどの条項に準拠すべきであるか不明確(具体的な 行動に対して相互の条項が矛盾する場合を含む)であることもあり得る。したがって、具体的な場面における準拠条項の選択や優先度等の判断は、会員個人の責 任に委ねられるものとする」

また、同サイトには、情報倫理に造詣の深い名和小太 郎(倫理綱領調査委員会委員長)による「なぜ倫理綱領が 必要か」の付議もある。非常に重要な指摘であり、当該学会員以外の多くの一般の人にも必要な情報であるので、付記する。

Code of Ethics of the Information Processing Society of Japan

Preamble:

In recognition of information technologies having powerful and pervasive influence over society across national borders, and in the hope that information technologies will contribute to society and promote public welfare, we, the members of the Information Processing Society of Japan, shall abide by the following rules of conduct together with any applicable laws and orders in our research, development and use of information technologies.

1. As members of society:

1.1 We shall not cause harm to the life, safety and property of others.
1.2 We shall respect the person and privacy of others.
1.3 We shall honor intellectual property rights and the fruits of intellectual endeavors of others.
1.4 We shall observe the operational standards and rules of information systems and networks.
1.5 We shall give due consideration to cultural diversity in society.

2. As professionals:

2.1 We shall continuously strive to improve our professional competence and put in our best efforts in performing our professional works.
2.2 We shall honor facts and data.
2.3 We shall give due consideration to the influence and risks information technologies may impose upon society and users.
2.4 We shall honor contracts and agreements with clients and preserve the confidentiality of clients' privileged information.

3. As organizational leaders:

3.1 We shall meet the demands of all persons affected by the development and operation of information systems and give due consideration to preserving their dignity.
3.2 We shall, in interconnecting different information systems, acknowledge the existence of information systems with differing management policies, and give due consideration to such interconnection not causing harm to the person of any and all individuals.
3.3 We shall prepare rules for the proper and appropriate exploitation of resources with respect to the development and operation of information systems, and assume the responsibility of implementing such rules.
3.4 We shall provide opportunities to other members of organizations to which we belong to be educated in the principles, limitations and risks of information technologies.

Note:

This Code of Ethics will not necessarily be applicable to all situations a member would face, and it may conflict with other codes of ethics governing different areas of research, or it may be unclear which provision(s) hereof should govern in a given situation (including the case where certain provisions hereof conflict with each other with respect to a specific conduct). Therefore, it is the responsibility of each member himself or herself to make a determination as to the selection, prioritizing, etc., of the provision(s) hereof which should govern in a specific situation.

Addendum:

This Code of Ethics shall come into effect on 20 May, 1996.
The Information Processing Society of Japan shall establish a committee, as needed, for the purpose of interpreting or reconsidering this Code of Ethics.

cited from http://www.ipsj.or.jp/ipsjcode.html

情報倫理のフィールドワーク:テーマ「若者とメディア・情報倫理について」

"How young people think about the moral and ethical dilemmas they encounter when they share and use online content and participate in online communities. Fresh from a party, a teen posts a photo on Facebook of a friend drinking a beer. A college student repurposes an article from Wikipedia for a paper. A group of players in a multiplayer online game routinely cheat new players by selling them worthless virtual accessories for high prices. In Disconnected, Carrie James examines how young people and the adults in their lives think about these sorts of online dilemmas, describing ethical blind spots and disconnects. Drawing on extensive interviews with young people between the ages of 10 and 25, James describes the nature of their thinking about privacy, property, and participation online. She identifies three ways that young people approach online activities. A teen might practice self-focused thinking, concerned mostly about consequences for herself; moral thinking, concerned about the consequences for people he knows; or ethical thinking, concerned about unknown individuals and larger communities. James finds, among other things, that youth are often blind to moral or ethical concerns about privacy; that attitudes toward property range from "what's theirs is theirs" to "free for all"; that hostile speech can be met with a belief that online content is "just a joke"; and that adults who are consulted about such dilemmas often emphasize personal safety issues over online ethics and citizenship. Considering ways to address the digital ethics gap, James offers a vision of conscientious connectivity, which involves ethical thinking skills but, perhaps more important, is marked by sensitivity to the dilemmas posed by online life, a motivation to wrestle with them, and a sense of moral agency that supports socially positive online actions." - #Nielsen BookData.

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