Substance related disorders and addictive disorders
[ad. L. addictiōn-em, n. of action f. addīc-ĕre; see addict.]
1.1 Rom. Law. A formal giving over or delivery by sentence of court. Hence, A surrender, or dedication, of any one to a master.
1625 T. Godwin Rom. Antiq. 170 The forme of Addiction was thus‥the party which preuailed, laid his hand on the thing or the person against which sentence was pronounced vsing this forme of words, Hunc ego hominem siue hanc rem ex iure Quiritium meam esse dico. 1735 Bp. Patrick On Exodus xx. 6 Look upon it only as a solemn Addiction of him to his Master's Service. 1751 Chambers Cycl., Adjudication is more particularly used for the addiction, or consigning a thing sold by auction, or the like, to the highest bidder. 1880 Muirhead Gaius iii. §189 Whether this addiction made him a slave‥was a point of controversy with the old lawyers.
2. a.2.a The state of being (self-)addicted or given to a habit or pursuit; devotion.
1641 Vind. Smectym. ii. 43 The peoples‥more willing addiction to hearing. 1675 E. Phillips in Shaks. Cent. Praise 360 His own proper Industry and Addiction to Books. 1789 T. Jefferson Writings (1859) II. 585 Such an addiction is the last degradation of a free and moral agent. 1858 Gladstone Stud. Homer I. 237 Their addiction to agricultural pursuits. 1859 Mill Liberty 146 A man who causes grief to his family by addiction to bad habits.
b.2.b The, or a, state of being addicted to a drug (see addicted ppl. a. 3 b); a compulsion and need to continue taking a drug as a result of taking it in the past. Cf. drug-addiction s.v. drug n.1 1 b.
[1779 Johnson L.P., Philips Wks. II. 291 His addiction to tobacco is mentioned by one of his biographers.] 1906 Jrnl. Amer. Med. Assoc. 3 Mar. 643/2 It matters little whether one speaks of the opium habit, the opium disease or the opium addiction. 1951 A. Grollman Pharmacol. & Therapeutics iv. 97 Addiction refers to that condition induced by a drug which necessitates the continuation of the drug and without which physical and mental derangements result. 1960 P. Goodman Growing up Absurd ix. 180 In taking drugs for the new experience, they largely steer clear of being hooked by an addiction. 1965 New Statesman 3 Dec. 868/1 Addiction units tend not to be aware of the addict's tremendous need for moral support when the drug is taken from him. 1975 Nature 18 Sept. 188/2 Most people consider opiate addiction to comprise three major elements: tolerance, physical dependence, and compulsive craving.
†3.3 The way in which one is addicted; inclination, bent, leaning, penchant. Also in pl. Obs.
1604 Shakes. Oth. ii. ii. 6 Each man to what sport and revels his addiction leads him. 1634 Peacham Compl. Gentlem. iv. 34/2 For every man to search into the addiction of his Genius, and not to wrest nature. 1675 in Phil. Trans. X. 255 The genius, faculties, addictions, and humors of men of all ages.
Forms: 6 -aunce, 6–9 -ance, 7– -ence.
[a. F. dépendance (15th c. in Littré, in 14th c. despendence, Oresme), f. dependant: see prec. and -ance. Like dependent a., subseq. assimilated to the L. type, the form in -ance being rare after 1800.]
†1.1 The action of hanging down; concr. something that hangs down. Obs. rare.
1697 Dryden Virg. Georg. iv. 806 Like a large Cluster of black Grapes they show, And make a large dependance from the Bough.
2.2 The relation of having existence hanging upon, or conditioned by, the existence of something else; the fact of depending upon something else.
1605 Verstegan Dec. Intell. ii. (1628) 27 Words‥that seeme to haue dependance on the Latin. 1613 J. Salkeld Treat. Angels 5 Without beginning or dependence of any other cause. 1646 Sir T. Browne Pseud. Ep. i. xi. 45 There was no naturall dependance of the event upon the signe. 1677 Plot Oxfordsh. 196, I dare not suppose there was any dependence between the medicin and disease. 1754 Edwards Freed. Will i. iv. 23 The Dependence and Connection between Acts of Volition or Choice, and their Causes. 1860 Tyndall Glac. i. xxvii. 199 The chain of dependence which runs throughout creation. 1864 Bowen Logic x. 348 That which comes next it in the order of dependence.
†b.2.b Connexion of successively dependent parts; logical sequence. Obs. (or merged in prec.).
a 1535 More Wks. 611 (R.) Hys woordes‥be so dark and so intriked of purpose withoute any dependence or order. 1638 Sir T. Herbert Trav. (ed. 2) 236 The Father next, and as they are in blood the other follow in a just dependance; the rest promiscuously. 1681–6 J. Scott Chr. Life (1747) III. 252 The Discourse‥from Verse to Verse runs all along in a close and continued Dependance.
†c.2.c In wider sense: Relation, connexion (cf. depend 2 b). Obs.
a 1633 Austin Medit. (1635) 226 As their [St. Philip and St. Bartholomew] being of that Society of the Twelve hindred them not from being of the great Societie the Church; so their other Dependances, as being of the Church, or being of the seventy, or being married men‥hindred them not from being of the Twelve.
3.3 The relation of anything subordinate to that from which it holds, or derives support, etc.; the condition of a dependant; subjection, subordination. (Opp. to independence.)
1614 Raleigh Hist. World iii. 72 Those two great Cities, Athens and Sparta, upon which all the rest had most dependance. 1660 R. Coke Power & Subj. 147 How far the Britanick Churches were from any dependence upon the Church of Rome. 1699 Bentley Phal. 488 A dependance upon the most Brutal of Tyrants. 1751 Johnson Rambler No. 101 ⁋4, I lived in all the luxury of affluence without expence or dependence. 1765 Blackstone Comm. Introd. §4. 101 Dependence being very little else, but an obligation to conform to the will or law of that superior person or state, upon which the inferior depends. 1874 Green Short Hist. viii. §2. 469 To free the Crown from its dependence on the Parliament. 1886 Stevenson Kidnapped xviii. 172 The other four were equally in the Duke's dependance.
†4.4 concr. That which is subordinate to, connected with, or belonging to, something else; an appurtenance, connexion, dependency. Obs.
1540 Act 32 Hen. VIII, c. 25 To committe the state of his said mariage, with all the circumstances and dependaunce thereof vnto the prelates. 1581 Savile Tacitus' Hist. iii. xiii. (1591) 122 As though eight Legions were to be the dependance of one nauy. 1601 Holland Pliny I. 127 The great riuer Indus‥issueth out of a part or dependance of the hill Caucasus. 1794 Hist. in Ann. Reg. 54 Coblentz, a dependence of the electorate of Mentz.
†b.4.b A body of dependants or subordinates; a retinue. (Usually -ance.) Obs.
1606 Ford Honor Tri. 10 Deseruing to be beloued; of whome? Of popular opinion or unstable vulgar dependances? 1631 Weever Anc. Fun. Mon. 273 He feasted‥two kings, two Queenes, with their dependances, 700. messe of meate scarce seruing for the first dinner. 1638 Rawley tr. Bacon's Life & Death (1650) 19 A numerous Family, a great Retinue, and Dependance. 1692 South Serm. (1697) I. 33 Encumbred with Dependances, throng'd and surrounded with Petitioners.
5.5 The condition of resting in faith or expectation (upon something); reliance; assured confidence or trust.
1627 Sanderson 12 Serm. (1632) 530 Faithful dependance vpon the providence‥of God. 1754 Hist. Yng. Lady Distinction II. 10 Thoroughly sensible what little dependence I ought to make on my own strength. 1763 E. Carter Mem. etc. (1816) I. 295 The waters, I shall continue drinking, without much dependance of getting better. 1801 Gabrielli Myst. Husb. II. 205 There was no dependance to be placed in the word of a woman who [etc.]. 1841 Lane Arab. Nts. I. 68 It is the only branch of divination worthy of dependance. 1875 Jowett Plato (ed. 2) V. 19 Living‥in dependence on the will of God.
b.5.b transf. That on which one relies or may rely; object of reliance or trust; resource. ? Obs.
1754 Richardson Grandison IV. v. 44 Your honour, your piety, are my just dependence. 1803 Wellington in Owen Desp. 784 The seamen from the East India fleet were the only or principal dependence for manning the navy. 1827 J. F. Cooper Prairie II. iv. 59 Take the Lord for your dependance.
†c.5.c Reliableness, trustworthiness. Obs. rare.
1752 Hume Ess. & Treat. (1777) I. 22 So little dependance has this affair. 1790–1811 W. Combe Devil on Two Sticks (1817) VI. 44 The philosophy of poets‥is not of very sterling dependence.
6.6 The condition of waiting for settlement; pending, suspense. (Now only in legal use.)
1605 Burgh Rec. Aberdeen 4 Dec. (Jam. Suppl.), That anes the actioune may be put under dependance befoir onie parliament. 1679–1714 Burnet Hist. Ref., After a long dependance it might end as the former had done. 1816 Shelley Let. in Dowden Life II. 8 Engagements contracted during the dependence of the late negotiation. 1861 W. Bell Dict. Law Scot., Depending Action, an action is held to be in dependence from the moment of the citation, until the final decision of the House of Lords. 1874 Act 37–8 Vict. c. 94 §68 Nothing herein contained shall affect any action now in dependence.
†b.6.b A quarrel or affair of honour ‘depending’ or awaiting settlement. Obs.
1598 B. Jonson Ev. Man in Hum. i. v, The bastinado! a most proper, and sufficient dependance, warranted by the great Caranza. 1616 ― Devil an Ass iv. vii, H' is friend to him, with whom I ha' the dependance. 1820 Scott Monast. xxi, Let us pause for the space of one venue, until I give you my opinion on this dependence. [Note. Dependence, a phrase among the brethren of the sword for an existing quarrel.]
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