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Dr. James Tully's Works

An Introduction

池田光穂

ジェームス・トゥーリイ先生(James Tully, 1946- )[ジェームス・タリー]は、カナダ・ビクトリア大学の政治哲学者、現在、名誉教授

経 歴の概略(ウィキペディアの記事)

"James Hamilton Tully (born 1946) is a Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Law, Indigenous Governance and Philosophy at the University of Victoria, Canada. His research and teaching comprise a public philosophy that is grounded in place (Canada) yet reaches out to the world of civic engagement with the problems of our time. He does this in ways that strive to contribute to dialogue between academics and citizens. For example, his research areas include the Canadian experience of coping with the deep diversity of multicultural and multinational citizenship; relationships between indigenous and non-indigenous people; and the emergence of citizenship of the living earth as the ground of sustainable futures"

政 治理論(これもウィキペディアの記事のヘッダー)

Renewing and transforming public philosophy:更新し変容する公的哲学

The politics of cultural recognition:文化的承認の政治学

Practices of civic freedom and global citizenship:市民的自由と地球規模の市民権

The transformative power of nonviolence:非暴力による変容力

Sustainability and Gaia citizenship:持続可能性とガイア(地球)シティズンシップ(市民権)

ジェームス・タリー先生の研究と先住民の位置づけ

「18 世紀における労働者というカテゴリーも、無産階級には市民 権を与えないことが基礎となっていたが、先住民も文化的実践という条件により、市民として扱 われてこなかった。先住民運動を市民とは誰かを決定する境界の再画定を求める運動と捉えれば、 それは民主制を脅かす差異の政治学ではなく、むしろ民主制の不完全さを指摘、改善する運動で もあることが分かる。これまで多文化主義的市民権に関する議論の資料は、カナダ(C.テイラー、W.キムリカ、J. タリー[ジェームス・トゥーリイ:James Tully, 1946-])オーストラリアや米国(J.ロールズ、S.マセド)、などの事例から 議論されてきた。だ が、新自由主義経済体制の導入後のメキシコや内戦終結後のグアテマラでは、先住民は無視でき ない政治主体(サパティスタ運動やマヤ運動)となっている。中米の事例から問題を捉え直すこ とにより、多文化主義的市民権に関する議論が広がる可能性がある」(→「中米先住民運動の 民族誌学的研究を通した「先住民概念」の再検討」)。

 James Tully (1995:46-47), on Predicament of Culture by James Clifford, 1988

Perhaps the best overview of this consequence of postmodern legal and political theory is not in the works of the political theorists themselves, but in the writings of the anthropologist James Clifford. In The predicament of culture he sets out to explore the consequences of the new concept of culture as overlapping, open and negotiated, with the aim of freeing his readers from the earlier, separate, closed and homogeneous conception. However, in the description of 'the condition of uncertainty' from which he writes, instead of attending and giving appropriate recognition to the different types of overlapping cultural differences and similarities that come into view (as he does in the insightful chapter on the Mashpee Aboriginal nation on Cape Cod), he reduces postmodern societies to a homogeneous culture of contingent and dissolving differences. He writes,

 I think we are seeing signs that the privilege given to natural languages and, as it were, natural cultures, is dissolving. These objects and epistemological grounds are now appearing as constructs, achieved fictions, containing and domesticating heteroglossia. In a world with too many voices speaking all at once, a world where syncretism and parodic invention are the rule, not the exception, an urban, multinational world of institutional transience --- where American clothes made in Korea are worn by young people in Russia, where everyone's 'roots' are in some degree cut --- in such a world it becomes increasingly difficult to attach human identity and meaning to a coherent 'culture' or 'language'. - James Clifford, The predicament of culture: twentieth-century ethnography, literature and art (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UniversityPress, 1988) p.95.

Of course, it is increasingly difficult to attach human identity and meaning to a coherent culture or language on the common ground, given the forces of globalisation and mobility mentioned in the first chapter. This is why there is a politics of cultural recognition at the end of the twentieth century, and why it will intensify in the twenty-first. However, dissolving this difficulty, and the demands it has engendered, into a homogeneous 'post-cultural situation' is to finesse rather than face the problem post-modernism sets out to address. The end result is strikingly similar to that put forward by conservative critics of cultural diversity....

James Tully, Strange multiplicity

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